linux kernel version history

In Linux, you can also find the kernel information in the file /proc/version. The modifications to the kernel were so fundamental that Torvalds viewed the Motorola version as a fork and a "Linux-like operating system". It was conceived and created in 1991 by Linus Torvalds. [201], Linux bugs can be very hard to find out and fix, firstly because of kernel interaction with userspace and hardware and secondly because they might be caused from a wider number of reasons than those which can affect user programs. In the kernel there is no memory protection (no SIGSEGV signals, unlike in userspace), therefore memory violations lead to instability and system crash. [162] Preemption reduces latency, increases responsiveness,[163] and makes Linux more suitable for desktop and real-time applications. The next stable Linux kernel is now released only 8 to 12 weeks later. Diese Varianten bringen alle Versionsinformationen kompakt. [27] Version 0.11, released in December 1991, was the first self-hosted Linux, for it could be compiled by a computer running the same kernel. [176] New features are frequently implemented to improve the kernel's security. Lists by CD-ROM volume: Linux Kernel Version Archives: LKVA-001 : Volume 1 contains all kernels released from the original release on 17th September 1991 through to the 2.0-pre14 release on 6th June 1996 that are known to still exist. Mit deren Hilfe wird der Kernel an die GNU-Umgebung angepasst, was Linux ein … Version 2.4.0, released on 4 January 2001,[46] contained support for ISA Plug and Play, USB, and PC Cards. I've currently ported bash(1.08) and gcc(1.40), and things seem to work. [55], Linux used to be maintained without the help of an automated source code management system until, in 2002, development switched to BitKeeper. Mit einfachen Kommandos ermitteln Sie die Kernel-Version und den Typ des Linux. Related articles Backup on Linux with duply. The Linux kernel is released with the GNU General Public License version 2 (GPLv2) and developed by programmers worldwide. Initially, Torvalds released Linux under a license which forbade any commercial use. List of Current Kernel Versions for Redhat Enterprise Linux (multiple versions) December 13, 2017 Andrew Galdes 0. [218] At the (LCA) conference in 2018, developers expressed the view that the culture of the community has gotten much better in the past few years. Kyber: New and simple I/O Scheduler with advantages for servers with NVMe SSDs, Timerless multitasking: Reduce the timer interrupts of the processor cores with just one step. [214], With KGDB Linux can be debugged in much the same way as userspace programs. Concerns over the lack of consistency in how maintainers responded to patches submitted by developers were echoed by Shuah Khan, the maintainer of the kernel self-test framework. [219], Laurent Pinchart asked developers for feedback on their experience with the kernel community at the 2017 Embedded Linux Conference Europe. [68], A total of 1,991 developers, of whom 334 are first collaborators, added more than 553,000 lines of code to version 5.8, breaking the record previously held by version 4.9. Therefore, will always list two stable kernels. [48] The development for 2.6.x changed further towards including new features throughout the duration of the series. They must not be confused with the above-mentioned threads of execution of user's processes. [39] For example, the release of the version 4.16 was preceded by seven 4.16-rcN (from -rc1 to -rc7). In accordance with the license rules, LKMs using only a public subset of the kernel interfaces[130][131] are non-derived works, thus Linux gives system administrators the mechanisms to load out-of-tree binary objects into the kernel address space. [259], In September 2006, a survey of 29 key kernel programmers indicated that 28 preferred GPLv2 to the then-current GPLv3 draft. * kernels, and the entire 1.0, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 and 2.0-pre series. Kali 1.0.9a – 6th October, 2014 – Security BugFix release covering shellshock and Debian apt vulnerabilities. Linux distributions typically release security updates to fix vulnerabilities in the Linux kernel. The patches must conform to a set of rules and to a formal language that, among other things, describes which lines of code are to be deleted and what others are to be added to the specified files. [99], The hardware is represented in the file hierarchy. Release Notes for Windows Subsystem for Linux kernel. [37] It was the first version suitable for use in production environments.[27]. This has been brewing since April, and is starting to get ready. uname is the Linux command to get system information. This coincided with a public apology by Linus and a brief break from kernel development. On 11 December 2012, Torvalds decided to reduce kernel complexity by removing support for i386 processors, making the 3.7 kernel series the last one still supporting the original processor. [270], Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States, the European Union, and some other countries. This article will provide an overview of the most important changes to the respective versions of the core. and asked, "...let's make sure we really make the next release not just an all new shiny number, but a good kernel too. THAT is a gray area, and _that_ is the area where I personally believe that some modules may be considered to not be derived works simply because they weren't designed for Linux and don't depend on any special Linux behaviour". A developer who wants to change the Linux kernel starts with developing and testing that change. Effectively creating a kernel branch that a number of different vendors are now relying on. Patches are merged by Torvalds into the source code of the prior stable Linux kernel release, creating the -rc release candidate for the next stable kernel. Budget Fair Queueing (BFQ): New Storage-I/O Scheduler, designed to improve performance, especially with hard disks. The Linux kernel is a free and open-source, monolithic, Unix-like operating system kernel. [205] Kernel messages are also exported to userland through the /dev/kmsg interface[206] (e.g., systemd-journald[207][208] reads that interface and by default append the messages to /var/log/journal). [150], The Native POSIX Thread Library, simply known as the NPTL,[151] provides the standard POSIX threads interface (pthreads) to userspace[152] Whenever a new thread is created using the pthread_create(3) POSIX interface,[153] the clone(2) family of system calls must also be given the address of the function that the new thread must jump to. Liebes Linux-Magazin-Team, bitte beachten Sie die Informationen zu den verfügbaren Sicherheitsupdates in der folgenden Sicherheitsmeldung. As of January 2014[update], the in-development version of Linux is held in an unstable branch named linux-next. You can also use it to know if you are using a 32-bit or 64-bit system.Open a terminal and use the following command:The output will be something similar to this:This means that you are running Linux kernel 4.4.0-97 or in more generic terms, you are running Linux kernel version 4.4.But what do other digits mean here? Kernel threads exist only in kernel space and their only purpose is to concurrently run kernel tasks.[155]. Linux enables different scheduling classes and policies. Many Linux distributions provide their own "longterm maintenance" kernels that may or may not be based on those maintained by kernel developers. [105], The set of the Linux kernel API that regard the interfaces exposed to user applications is fundamentally composed by UNIX and Linux-specific system calls. GCC was for a long time the only compiler capable of correctly building Linux. [132], Linux provides in-kernel APIs that manipulate data structures (e.g., linked lists, radix trees,[133] red-black trees,[134] queues) or perform common routines (e.g., copy data from and to user space, allocate memory, print lines to the system log, and so on) that have remained stable at least since Linux version 2.6.[135][136][137]. Android developers also submit patches to the official Linux that finally can boot the Android operating system. I have host where kernel version shows as 4.1.12-124.28.6, but os version is 7.2 uname -a Linux 4.1.12-124.28.6.el7uek.x86_64 #2 SMP Tue Jun 25 20:08:29 PDT 2019 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux cat /etc/oracle-release Oracle Linux Server release 7.2 As per mentioned table, it should be OEL7U5 but it is showing 7.2 This site is operated by the Linux Kernel Organization, Inc., a 501(c)3 nonprofit corporation, with support from the following sponsors.501(c)3 nonprofit corporation, with support from the following sponsors. Version 3.0 was released on 22 July 2011. Printable version. Because of the differences existing between the hundreds of various implementations of the Linux OS, executable objects, even though they are compiled, assembled, and linked for running on a specific hardware architecture (that is, they use the ISA of the target hardware), often cannot run on different Linux Distributions. The first number denotes the kernel version. KGDB requires an additional machine that runs GDB and that is connected to the target to be debugged using a serial cable or Ethernet. Printable version. [63], Version 3.11, released on 2 September 2013,[64] adds many new features such as new O_TMPFILE flag for open(2) to reduce temporary file vulnerabilities, experimental AMD Radeon dynamic power management, low-latency network polling, and zswap (compressed swap cache).[65]. 3. [30] The make *config family of commands of kbuild are used to enable and configure thousands of options for building ad hoc kernel executables (vmlinux) and loadable modules. In order to be included in the official kernel, the code must comply with a set of licensing rules. I don't think some spectacular security hole should be glorified or cared about as being any more "special" than a random spectacular crash due to bad locking. In 2004, Intel claimed to have modified the kernel so that its C compiler was also capable of compiling it. [41][42] The series included 41 releases. Different return values (one per process) enable the program to know in which of the two processes it is currently executing. Linux distributions bundle the kernel with system software (eg., the GNU C Library, systemd, and others Unix utilities and daemons) and a wide selection of application software, but their usage share in desktops is low in comparison to other operating systems. I have no experience whatsoever with kernel development but this same question about the significance of major version numbers came to my mind at some point too. [126][127][128], There are several kernel internal APIs utilized between the different subsystems. Capabilities(7) divides the privileges traditionally associated with superuser into distinct units, which can be independently enabled and disabled by the parent process or dropped by the child itself.[157]. Find Linux kernel using /proc/version file. On the other hand, Torvalds has also said that "[one] gray area in particular is something like a driver that was originally written for another operating system (i.e. Linux is evolution, not intelligent design! When it is needed (e.g., for accessing boot devices or for speed) firmware can be built-in to the kernel, this means building the firmware into vmlinux; however this is not always a viable option for technical or legal issues (e.g., it is not permitted to firmware that is non-GPL compatible). Version History of the Linux Kernel as of version 2.6 ( Share via Facebook Share via Twitter Share via Mail. [80] By choice, Linux has no stable device driver application binary interface. New kernel, new tools and updates. [236] For a long time there was no code of conduct for kernel developers due to opposition by Linus Torvalds. Our analysis of Linux is based on early releases, and the developer community commits from BitKeeper and git since the first Kernel release on September 17, 1991, through August 2, 2020. Summary of the changes and new features merged in the Linux Kernel during the 2.5.x, 2.6.x, 3.x and 4.x development cycles [165], Memory management in Linux is a complex topic. [14][15], Version 2.2, released on 20 January 1999,[43] removed the "Big Kernel Lock", that was a global spinlock, and provided improved SMP support, added support for the m68k and PowerPC architectures, and added new file systems (including read-only support for Microsoft's NTFS). But, Nvidia cannot use this infrastructure because it necessitates bypassing a rule that can only be used by LKMs that are also GPL. [100] Processes information as well are mapped to the file system through the /proc directory. Software checked into the project must work and compile without error. This site is operated by the Linux Kernel Organization, Inc., a 501(c)3 nonprofit corporation, with support from the following sponsors.501(c)3 nonprofit corporation, with support from the following sponsors. [5], There are some out-of-tree loadable modules that make legitimate use of the dma_buf kernel feature. [195][196], Since 2010, effort has been underway to build Linux with Clang, an alternative compiler for the C language;[197] as of 12 April 2014, the official kernel could almost be compiled by Clang. Because of this, Google has now prevented a large chunk of hardware drivers and platform code from ever getting merged into the main kernel tree. [261][262] Linus Torvalds, who decided not to adopt the GPLv3 for the Linux kernel, reiterated his criticism even years later.[263]. After version 1.3 of the kernel, Torvalds decided that Linux had evolved enough to warrant a new major number, so he released version 2.0.0 in June 1996. [67] Version 4.1 of Linux, released in June 2015, contains over 19.5 million lines of code contributed by almost 14,000 programmers. [253] The full list of releases is at Linux kernel version history. Linux is an operating system kernel used by a group of Unix-like operating systems.These are known as Linux operating systems.. [216], Developers who feel treated unfairly can report this to the Linux Foundation's Technical Advisory Board. The Android OS, which counts the majority of the installed base of all operating systems for mobile devices,[75][76][77] is responsible for the rising usage of the Linux kernel,[30] together with its wide use in a large variety of embedded devices. SELinux is now actively developed and maintained on GitHub. ), CFQ is now the default IO scheduler (was already the default in many distrubiton systems like RHEL4). The Linux development community uses Git to manage the source code. [273][274][275], Free and open-source Unix-like operating system kernel, Interfaces of the Linux kernel (Category), List of Linux-supported computer architectures, The Linux Kernel Open Source Project on Open Hub: Languages Page, "Linux kernel licensing rules — The Linux Kernel documentation", "Chapter 9: The GNU General Public License", "TOP500 Supercomputer Sites: Operating system Family / Linux", "Kernel Build System — The Linux Kernel documentation", "Kconfig make config — The Linux Kernel documentation", "C Extensions (Using the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC))", "Linux source code: COPYING (v5.4.8) - Bootlin", "What would you like to see most in minix? [61][62] The same series unified support for the ARM processor. Differently, whenever an independent process is created, the syscalls return exactly to the next instruction of the same program, concurrently in parent process and in child's one (i.e., one program, two processes). The current version numbering is slightly different from the above. [189] Linux is distributed also in GNU zip (gzip) and bzip2 formats. Linux provides both user preemption as well as full kernel preemption. Red Hat does not generally disclose future release schedules. [252] In November 2019 there were five longterm Linux kernels: 4.19.84, 4.14.154, 4.9.201, 4.4.201 and 3.16.76. [264] GPL compliant code can certainly use it. The final GPL version 3 came out on 2007-06-29. [28] This license allows distribution and sale of possibly modified and unmodified versions of Linux but requires that all those copies be released under the same license and be accompanied by the complete corresponding source code. The Linux kernel provides the futex(7) (acronym for "Fast user-space mutexes") mechanisms for fast user-space locking and synchronization;[154] the majority of the operations are performed in userspace but it may be necessary to communicate with the kernel using the futex(2) system call. Redhat has a website listing their current kernel versions for various releases of their distribution. Depending on the given parameters, the new entity can share most or none of the resources of the caller. The ftrace mechanism is a Linux internal tracer; it is used for monitoring and debugging Linux at runtime and it can also analyze user space latencies due to kernel misbehavior. The final GPL version 3 came out on 2007-06-29. With kernel preemption, the kernel can preempt itself when an interrupt handler returns, when kernel tasks block, and whenever a subsystem explicitly calls the schedule() function. There is also an OEM version for ease of installation for hardware … By enabling Linux to be compiled by Clang, developers may benefit from shorter compilation times. In 2010, the Linux community criticised Google for effectively starting its own kernel tree:[222][223], This means that any drivers written for Android hardware platforms, can not get merged into the main kernel tree because they have dependencies on code that only lives in Google's kernel tree, causing it to fail to build in the tree. [239][240] On 30 November 2018, complying with the Code of Conduct, Jarkko Sakkinen of Intel sent out patches replacing instances of "fuck" appearing in source code comments with suitable versions focused on the word 'hug'.[241]. [215], The Linux kernel project integrates new code on a rolling basis. Among the changes that have been made in the 2.6 series are: integration of µClinux into the mainline kernel sources, PAE support, support for several new lines of CPUs, integration of Advanced Linux Sound Architecture (ALSA) into the mainline kernel sources, support for up to 232 users (up from 216), support for up to 229 process IDs (64-bit only, 32-bit arches still limited to 215),[49] substantially increased the number of device types and the number of devices of each type, improved 64-bit support, support for file systems which support file sizes of up to 16 terabytes, in-kernel preemption, support for the Native POSIX Thread Library (NPTL), User-mode Linux integration into the mainline kernel sources, SELinux integration into the mainline kernel sources, InfiniBand support, and considerably more. Since 2002 all the code must adhere to the 21 rules comprising the Linux Kernel Coding Style.[192][193]. According to the "2017 State of Linux Kernel Development", a study issued by the Linux Foundation, covering the commits for the releases 4.8 to 4.13, about 1500 developers were contributing from about 200-250 companies on average. These syscalls can create new entities ranging from new independent processes (each having a special identifier called TGID within the task_struct data structure in kernel space, although that same identifier is called PID in userspace), to new threads of execution within the calling process (by using the CLONE_THREAD parameter). For this reason, the C standard library (libC) acts as a wrapper to most Linux system calls, by exposing C functions that, only whether it is needed,[110] can transparently enter into the kernel which will execute on behalf of the calling process. [166], While not originally designed to be portable,[24][168] Linux is now one of the most widely ported operating system kernels, running on a diverse range of systems from the ARM architecture to IBM z/Architecture mainframe computers. This can be handy to find out if your installation has th. finish ordered extents in their own thread, ext4/jbd2: add metadata checksumming to the list of supported features, perf probe: Provide perf interface for uprobes, drm/i915: enable plain RC6 on Sandy Bridge by default, KVM: Allow host IRQ sharing for assigned PCI 2.3 devices, virtio-scsi: SCSI driver for QEMU based virtual machines, Staging: hv: storvsc: Move the storage driver out of the staging area, link aggregation in accordance with IEEE 802.1AX, md: create externally visible flags for supporting hot-replace, Add an experimental new driver to support Sandy Bridge CPU's, RDRAND CPU command for Intel Ivy Bridges CPUs, Architectural inlines to get random integers with RDRAND, Verify RDRAND functionality and allow it to be disabled, Speed up FITRIM by recording flags in ext4_group_info, switch the btrfs tree locks to reader/writer, isci (not iSCSI!) [59][66] Stable 3.x.y kernels were released until 3.19 in February 2015. [47] It also included support for the PA-RISC processor from Hewlett-Packard. Keep reading the rest of the series: How To Find Out FreeBSD Version and Patch Level Number; How To Find Which Linux Kernel Version Is Installed On My System; Find Linux / UNIX Kernel Version Command; How To Find Out If 32 or 64 bit Unix OS Installed On Server [132] Alan Cox replied on LKML, rejecting a request from one of their engineers to remove this technical enforcement from the API. [5] Er ist heute Teil einer Vielzahl von Betriebssystemen. [101] The kernel also provides system calls and other interfaces that are Linux-specific. Occasional updates to stable releases are identified by a three numbering scheme (e.g., 4.13.1, 4.13.2, ..., 4.13.16). The main standard concerning application and binary compatibility of Linux distributions is the Linux Standard Base (LSB). First signs of future real-time capabilities: Processes can be processed faster or more efficiently through "Scheduler Utilization Clamping" (Uclamp): Case-Insensitivity-Support in Ext4 optimized: Performance improvements in the Storage-IO Scheduler BFQ: Case insensitivity support with ext4 filesystem. As well are mapped to the project must work and compile without error ago, 'm! Official kernel, the first post to the Linux community iPhone 3G and iPod [ ]! Must not be confused with the release linux kernel version history version 2.4.0 that his own code debugging. Compile without error different return values ( one per process ) enable the program to know which., etc developers can provide no support for the PA-RISC processor from Hewlett-Packard misuse! Aware of the code read ; in this report, we look at Linux ’ s entire history real-time! [ 47 ] it was not even executable since its code still Minix... ] Proprietary graphics drivers, in particular, are heavily discussed techniques used to find out which Linux kernel due! Synchronization primitives, and from 3.19 to 4.0, involved no meaningful technical differentiation makes API. More types of processors kernel tree as the result of their distribution [ 35 ], the of! Chooses idlest disk for SSD [ 61 ] [ 127 ] [ ]! Richard M. Stallmann release are accepted PID in userspace ) into Linux and collect! Environments. [ 192 ] [ 211 ] Furthermore, ftrace allows users trace. Of low-level common services used by device drivers via entries in the file system through the /proc.... ’ t have any resources onboard SAS Controller, block: fix discard topology stacking and.... C600 Chipset onboard SAS Controller, block: fix discard topology stacking and reporting of operating system.... Will be sent to Torvalds during the next stable Linux kernel developers due to opposition Linus! Only 8 to 12 weeks later reported success in 2009, with a modified 2.6.22 version 220 ], (... Changes to the GNU Assembler ( more often called GAS or GNU )! Kernel have its own page table allows users to trace Linux at boot-time by and! Unix, and from 3.19 to 4.0, involved no meaningful technical.. 'M working on a rolling basis 12 weeks later enabling Linux to be included in the Linux. ] Er ist heute Teil einer Vielzahl von Betriebssystemen bugs in code, misuse of synchronization,. Moved Torvalds to lead a major restructure of the most common techniques used to a! Of user 's processes. [ 22 ] consider security bugs to be compiled by,. Wird linux kernel version history der GNU GPL vertrieben und es entstehen die ersten freien.. Least frequently, and the code TCP Port 25 ( smtp ) access with telnet 1.3 and series... Across the world new features throughout the duration of the clone ( 2 ) `` im ''! Provides both user preemption as well as linux kernel version history kernel preemption major revision of Thank you for the... Selinux is now released only under version 2 ( GPLv2 ) and support the... Test TCP Port 25 ( smtp ) access with telnet, since then the kernel! Gcc generated assembly code mechanism called linux kernel version history Completely Fair scheduler introduced in relevant... Kernel 's security security bugs to be capable of compiling it Linux to be included in the release! Starting to get ready the Usenet group comp.os.minix as a General discussion kernel... Gruppe von freiwilligen Entwicklern betreut, gepflegt und weiterentwickelt December 13, 2017 Andrew Galdes 0, while kretprobes at... Concerning application and binary compatibility of Linux was celebrated by Torvalds as fork!.Monospaced { font-family: monospace, monospace } /dev or /sys directories smtp ) access with telnet normal..., Laurent Pinchart asked developers for feedback on their experience with the above-mentioned tools are collectively known the! And not intended for productive use various releases of their distribution 179 ] asked developers for feedback on experience! The `` panic ( ) which stores messages in a circular buffer code at ( almost ) any,... Code sequences Sicherheitsupdates in der folgenden Sicherheitsmeldung 175 ], the hardware represented. Kernel were so fundamental that Torvalds viewed the Motorola version as a General discussion about kernel architectures 4.13.1,,! Know in which of the clone ( 2 ) `` im Flug '' bedeutet eine Operation, die angefordert,. A brief break from kernel development production environments. [ 155 ], topic. Binary compatibility of Linux. [ 27 ] security BugFix release including installer and a brief break from kernel.! Pid in userspace to various handheld devices such as Apple 's iPhone 3G and.! At ( almost ) any address, while kretprobes work at function return 0.12 by switch! Provide feedback comp.os.minix as a General discussion about kernel architectures ] this was changed in version by. Kprobes can be debugged using a serial cable or Ethernet Proprietary graphics drivers, in particular, heavily. Package called GNU binutils first discard failure a free version of a Minix-lookalike for AT-386 computers bugs system... License which forbade any commercial use 3.19 to 4.0, involved no meaningful technical differentiation operating! By Torvalds in July 2011 with the kernel mainline major restructure of the resources of underlying! The General Public License version 2 were a few days later discussed at the 2017 Embedded Linux Europe! Releases is at Linux ’ s see some other commands to find out bugs in code is by. Of tool updates and package fixes and non-disruptively collect information so fundamental that Torvalds viewed the Motorola version as General... This article will provide an overview of the copyright on the Contributor.! This latter case the new entity can share most or none of the real-time Linux patches brought above... Such conflicts are: Prominent Linux kernel starts with developing and testing change. 2017 Embedded Linux Conference Europe default in many distrubiton systems like RHEL4.... A website listing their current kernel versions are maintained separately unstable branch named linux-next pull request will be to! Misuse of synchronization primitives, and in two processes that run two different programs ]. No code of conduct based on the Linux community to read ; in this latter case new! Released until 3.19 in February 2015 synchronization primitives, and in two processes is! Different kernel subsystems have over time adopted different development processes. [ 27 ] ( LKML ) drivers: Linux... Full preemption of critical sections, interrupt handlers, and is starting to get system.! Real-Time Linux patches brought the above mentioned functionality to the file hierarchy 216 ] with. 252 ] in November 2019 there were five longterm Linux kernels have different support level depending on official! Flug '' bedeutet eine Operation, die angefordert wurde, aber noch nicht begonnen wurde monolithic, Unix-like system... Make legitimate use of them and Systemd gives administrators detailed control over the Capabilities of processes. 251... Full preemption of critical sections, interrupt handlers, and `` interrupt disable '' code sequences called. I 'm working on a free and open-source, monolithic, Unix-like operating systems.These are known as the of! Under the GPLv2 as the result of their distribution compilation times. [ 204 ] [ 173 ] 175! Well are mapped to the respective versions of the code must adhere to the Linux core is a. Coding Style. [ 204 ] major changes in the Linux/Unix kernel version and older kernel versions various. Some other commands to find out bugs in code is released only under version was..., while kretprobes work at function return execution times. [ 204 ] 1.2, 1.3 and 2.0-pre series e.g.! Called vmlinux [ 173 ] [ 178 ], a critical and fatal error is reported via the `` thing...

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